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Расстановка артиклей, грамматика

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Расстановка артиклей, грамматика

Сообщение ekfe » 27 июн 2016, 15:16

Почему тут нужен артикль http://englando.com/ru/grammar/3/task/145 ?
ekfe

 
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Re: Расстановка артиклей, грамматика

Сообщение shatilof » 27 июн 2016, 15:32

1. Артикли при существительных в английском нужны в 95% случаев. Так что вопрос обычно возникает в тех случаях, когда артикль почему-то не нужен.

2. Конструкция This is и It is вводит, как правило, объект, относящийся к тому или иному разряду предметов( это - телефон, это - девочка, это - глупый мальчик и т.п.) То есть, они указывают на ОДИН предмет из многих. А как мы знаем, именно числительное one стало основой для образования артикля a/an.

3. Особенно часто неопределённый артикль ставится перед существительным с определением. He goes to school (он ходит в школу = он учится), но He goes to a new school (в новую школу, т.е. мы уже говорим здесь не о месте, которое используется по назначению и потому артикля не нужно, а о новом здании школы).
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Re: Расстановка артиклей, грамматика

Сообщение Slava » 05 дек 2017, 00:13

Dear Sir,
Some English sentences have the following view: "This is a man." and "That is an apple.".
What function or functions does the indefinite article a(an) fulfil in such sentences?
P.S. From my point of view, in the sentences mentioned above the article a(an) fulfils two functions. It names and
classifies some being or thing. If I am right, then:
1) the sentence "This is a man." implies the sentence "There exists at least one another man." and "There exist at least two men.",
2) the sentence "This is an apple." implies the sentence "There exists at least one another apple." and "There exist at least two apples.".
Sincerely yours, Slava.

-- 34 минуты 22 секунды --

Dear Sir,
Some English sentences have the following view: "This is the Pope." and "That is the moon.".
What function or functions does the definite article fulfil in such sentences?
P.S. From my point of view, in the mentioned sentences the definite article fulfils two functions. It names and classifies some being or thing. If I am right, then:
1) the sentence "This is the Pope." implies the sentence "There exists no another Pope." and "There exists only one Pope.",
2) the sentence "That is the moon." implies the sentence "There exists no another moon." and "There exists only one moon.".
Sincerely yours, Slava.
Slava

 
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Re: Расстановка артиклей, грамматика

Сообщение shatilof » 05 дек 2017, 01:00

You are right, Slava.
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Re: Расстановка артиклей, грамматика

Сообщение Slava » 05 дек 2017, 13:00

Dear Sir,

Thank you very much for your answer, and let me ask you the next questions.

Q 1.
Some English sentences have the following view: "These are men." and "Those are apples."
What function or functions does the zero article fulfil in such sentences?
P.S. From my point of view, in the sentences mentioned above the zero article fulfils two functions. It names and classifies a part of the whole group of beings or things. If I am right, then:
1) the sentence "These are men." implies the sentence "There exists at least one another man.", "There exist at least three men.", and "There exist many men.",
2) the sentence "Those are apples." implies the sentence "There exists at least one another apple.", "There exist at least three apples.", and "There exist many apples."

Q 2.
Some English sentences have the following view: "These are the cardinals." and "Those are the satallites of Mars."
What function or functions does the definite article fulfil in such sentences?
P.S. From my point of view, in the sentences mentioned above the definite article fulfils two functions. It names and classifies the whole group of beings or things. If I am right, then:
1) the sentence "These are the cardinals." implies the sentence "There exists no another cardinal." and "These are all cardinals.",
2) the sentence "Those are the satallites of Mars." implies the sentence "There exists no another satallite of Mars." and "Those are all satellites of Mars.".

Sincerely yours, Slava.
Slava

 
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Re: Расстановка артиклей, грамматика

Сообщение shatilof » 05 дек 2017, 14:03

How old are you, Slava?
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Re: Расстановка артиклей, грамматика

Сообщение Slava » 05 дек 2017, 18:48

I am sixty-four years old, sir.
Slava

 
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Re: Расстановка артиклей, грамматика

Сообщение shatilof » 05 дек 2017, 19:43

Good for you! Yes, you are right, but there is a less complicated way to get through to the gist of this topic. These are men means actually that these people belong to a kind called men - and not women. Those are apples means those fruit are apples and not anything else. These are the cardinlas is not a full phrase, as you would probably specify that these are the cardinal, who etc. (те - которые). In case of satellites and Mars, the is there just because whatever satellites Mars may have, they all belong to it - like the pages of a book or the street of a town.
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Re: Расстановка артиклей, грамматика

Сообщение Slava » 05 дек 2017, 21:22

Dear sir,

Thank you very much for your attention to my questions. Thanks to you, I can explain my grandson that:
1) the English sentence "This is an orange." implies the sentence "There exists at least one another orange.", whereas the Russian sentence "Это - апельсин." does not imply the sentence "Существует по меньшей мере ещё один апельсин.",
2) the English sentence "This is the golden orange." implies the sentence "There exists no another golden orange.",
whereas the Russian sentence "Это золотой апельсин." does not imply the sentence "Другого золотого апельсина нет.".
P.S. I want my grandson not only to translate English sentences but to understand them.

Sincerely yours, Slava.

-- 4 часа 22 минуты 34 секунды --

Dear sir,

It seems to me, the question "What is this?" has the following simpliest answers:
1) "This is a star.", "This is a planet." etc,
2) "This is the sun.", "This is the moon." etc,
3) "This is water.", "This is sand." etc.
From my point of view, the sentence "This is water [sand, dust etc]." implies the sentence "It is impossible or stupid to count water [sand, dust etc].".
Am I right or am I wrong?

Sincerely yours, Slava.

-- 15 часов 32 минуты 7 секунд --

Dear sir,

From my point of view:
1) the English sentence "This is a star." means the Russian sentence "Это одна из звёзд." ("This is one of the stars.") and implies the sentence "Это - звезда.",
2) the English sentence "This is the moon." means the Russian sentence "Это единственная луна." ("This is the only moon."), and implies the sentence "Это - луна.",
3) the English sentence "This is dust." means the Russian sentence "Этот материал - пыль." ("This material is dust.") and implies the sentence "Это - пыль.".
Am I right?

Sincerely yours, Slava.

-- 1 день 48 минут 41 секунду --

Dear Sir,

From my point of view:
1) the sentence "This is a star." is used much more often than the sentence "This is one of the stars." because the first of these two sentences is more laconic than the second one,
2) the sentence "This is the moon." is used much more often than the sentence "This is the only moon." because the first of these two sentences is more laconic than the second one,
3) the sentence "This is dust." is used much more often than the sentence "This material is dust." because the first of these two sentences is more laconic than the second one.
P.S. Аналогичным образом, предложение "Это - яблоко" употребляется гораздо чаще, чем предложение "Это одно яблоко.", потому что первое из этих двух русских предложений лаконичнее, чем второе.
Am I right or wrong?

Sincerely yours, Slava.

-- 1 день 13 часов 31 минуту 43 секунды --

Dear Sir,

What do the Russian sentences "Это яблоко.", "Это луна.", and "Это вино." mean in the English language?
From my point of view:
1) the Russian sentence "Это - яблоко" means "This is one apple." because the sentences "Это - яблоко." and "Это - одно яблоко." have identical sense,
2) the Russian sentence "Это - луна." means "This is one moon." because the sentences "Это - луна." and "Это - одна луна." have identical sense,
3) the Russian sentence "Это - вино." means "This is wine.".

Sincerely yours, Slava.

-- 2 дня 1 час 2 минуты 13 секунд --

Dear Sir,

From my point of view:
1.1) the sentences "This is a card." and "This thing is a card." have identical sense, but in the first sentence the word "this" is a demonstrative pronoun, whereas in the second one the word "this" is a demonstrative determiner,
1.2) the sentences "That is a dice." and "That thing is a dice" have identical sence, but in the first sentence the word "that" is a demonstrative pronoun, whereas in the second one the word "that" is a demonstrative determiner,
2.1) the sentences "This is a cat." and "This being is a cat." have identical sense, but ...,
2.2) the sentences "That is a dog." and "That being is a dog." have identical sense, but ...,
3.1) the sentences "These are cards." and "These things are cards." have identical sense, but ...
3.2) the sentences "Those are dices." and "Those things are dices." have identical sense, but ...,
4.1) the sentences "These are cats." and "These beings are cats." have identicel sense, but ...,
4.2) the sentences "Those are dogs." and "Those beings are dogs." have identical sense, but ...,
5.1) the sentences "This is sugar." and "This material is sugar." have identical sence, but ...,
5.2) the sentences "That is salt." and "That material is salt.", but in the first sentence the word "that" is a demonstrative pronoun, whereas in the second one the word "that" is a demonstrative determiner.
Am I right?

Sincerely yours, Slava.

-- 2 дня 13 часов 34 минуты 45 секунд --

Dear Sir,

It seems that there are five demonstrative determiners in the modern English language. I mean "the", "this", "that", "these", and "those".

"The" is the simpliest of the mentioned demonstrative determiners. It indicates to some entity (for instance, "the cat" or "the cats"), but it doesn't indicate to the relative distance between the speaker and the indicated entity. Also "the" doesn't indicate to one of two grammatical number of the indicated entity.

Each of the rest demonstrative determiners is more complicated than "the". Firstly, It indicates to some entity (for instance, "this cat", "that dog", "these cats", "those dogs"). Secondly, it indicates to the relative distance between the speaker and the indicated entity (compare "this cat" and "that cat"). And thirdly, it indicates to a grammatical number of the indicated entity (compare "this cat" and "these cats").

Am I right?

Sincerely yours, Slava.

-- 2 дня 22 часа 15 минут 10 секунд --

Dear Sir,

I want to offer my grandson to learn by heart the following table:

Demonstrative determiners / Demonstrative pronouns
the / -
this / this
that / that
these / these
those / those
Possesive determiners / Possesive pronouns
its / its
his / his
her / hers
their / theirs
your / yours
our / ours
my / mine

What do you think about the mentioned table?

Sincerely yours, Slava.
Slava

 
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